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Gaseous halos of spiral galaxies Gas in groups of galaxies Southern Compact Groups Variable sources Hot gas in clusters

High-energy studies of variable sources

In addition to the primary research on spiral galaxy halos and some related studies, X-ray observations of starburst galaxies led to the discovery of a few X-ray and (serendipitous) extreme ultra-violet variable sources, as described in:

One of these sources belongs to a previously unknown class of objects, the so-called "intermediate-luminosity X-ray objects" (IXOs) or "ultra-luminous X-ray sources" (ULXs):